The primary objective of the study is to compare the effect of endurance and endurance‑strength training on endothelial function in women with abdominal obesity. The secondary objectives include the assessment of the effect of both types of training on anthropometric, densitometric and biochemical parameters. In total, at least 100 women will be recruited for the study. The study population will be randomly divided into two groups according to the type of training: endurance and endurance‑strength training. During the 3-month of intervention, both groups will be performed three times a week training of an equal exercise volume and duration of 60 minutes. Before and after the intervention selected anthropometric and densitometric parameters will be measured and body composition will be analysed. In addition, biochemical parameters related to glucose and insulin homeostasis, lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, oxidative stress, inflammatory markers and endothelial function will be assessed.
- Lee S‑Y, Chang H‑J, Sung J, Kim KJ, Shin S, Cho I‑J, et al. The impact of obesity on subclinical coronary atherosclerosis according to the risk of cardiovascular disease. Obesity. 2014 Jul;22(7):1762–1768.
- Vanhoutte PM, Shimokawa H, Tang EHC, Feletou M. Endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Acta Physiol. 2009 Jun;196(2):193–222.
- Matsuzawa Y, Lerman A. Endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery disease: assessment, prognosis, and treatment. Coron Artery Dis. 2014 Dec;25(8):713–724.
- Lippincott MF, Desai A, Zalos G, Carlow A, De Jesus J, Blum A, et al. Predictors of endothelial function in employees with sedentary occupations in a worksite exercise program. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Oct;102(7):820–824.
- Duncker DJ, Bache RJ. Regulation of coronary blood flow during exercise. Physiol Rev. 2008 Jul;88(3):1009–1086.
- Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, Ard JD, Comuzzie AG, Donato KA, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014 Jun;129(25 Suppl 2):S102-S138.
- Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, Manore MM, Rankin JW, Smith BK, et al. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2009 Feb;41(2):459–471.
- Jakicic JM, Clark K, Coleman E, Donnelly JE, Foreyt J, Melanson E, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Dec;33(12):2145–2156.
- Fogelholm M, Stallknecht B, Van Baak M. ECSS position statement: exercise and obesity. Eur J Sport Sci. 2006 Aug;6(1):15–24.
- Schjerve IE, Tyldum GA, Tjønna AE, Stølen T, Loennechen JP, Hansen HEM, et al. Both aerobic endurance and strength training programmes improve cardiovascular health in obese adults. Clin Sci. 2008 Nov;115(9):283–293.
- Ho SS, Dhaliwal SS, Hills AP, Pal S. The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in the overweight and obese in a randomized trial. BMC Public Health. 2012 Aug;12(1):704.
- Azarbayjani M, Abedi B, Peeri M, Stannard SR. Effects of combined aerobic and resistant training on lipid profile and glycemic control in sedentary men. Int Med J. 2014 Apr;21(2):132–136.
- Parati G, Stergiou GS, Asmar R, Bilo G, de Leeuw P, Imai Y, et al. European Society of Hypertension guidelines for blood pressure monitoring at home: a summary report of the Second International Consensus Conference on Home Blood Pressure Monitoring. J Hypertens. 2008 Aug;26(8):1505–26.
- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Anthropometry procedures manual. 2007. Accessed: 15.09.2019. Online: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_07_08/manual_an.pdf.
- World Health Organization. Global database on body mass index. World Health Organization; 2006. Accessed: 15 Dec 2018. Online: https://www.who.int/nutrition/databases/bmi/en/.
- International Diabetes Federation. The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. Belgium: International Diabetes Federation; 2006.
- Kyle U, Bosaeus I, De Lorenzo AD, Deurenberg P, Elia M, Gómez JM, et al. Bioelectrical impedance analysis? Part I: review of principles and methods. Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):1226–1243.
- Hangartner TN, Warner S, Braillon P, Jankowski L, Shepherd J. The official positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: acquisition of dual‑energy X‑ray absorptiometry body composition and considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct‑Dec;16(4):520–536.
- Edwards DG, Schofield RS, Lennon SL, Pierce GL, Nichols WW, Braith RW. Effect of exercise training on endothelial function in men with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2004 Mar;93(5):617–620.
- Cohen ND, Dunstan DW, Robinson C, Vulikh E, Zimmet PZ, Shaw JE. Improved endothelial function following a 14-month resistance exercise training program in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Mar;79(3):405–411.
- Beck DT, Martin JS, Casey DP, Braith RW. Exercise training improves endothelial function in resistance arteries of young prehypertensives. J Hum Hypertens. 2014 May;28(5):303–309.
- Di Francescomarino S, Sciartilli A, Di Valerio V, Di Baldassarre A, Gallina S. The effect of physical exercise on endothelial function. Sport Med. 2009 Oct;39(10):797–812.
- Rakobowchuk M, McGowan CL, de Groot PC, Hartman JW, Phillips SM, MacDonald MJ. Endothelial function of young healthy males following whole body resistance training. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jun;98(6):2185–2190.
- Østergård T, Nyholm B, Hansen TK, Rasmussen LM, Ingerslev J, Sørensen KE, et al. Endothelial function and biochemical vascular markers in first‑degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients: the effect of exercise training. Metabolism. 2006 Nov;55(11):1508–1515.