Study designs in medical research and their key characteristics




research methodology, study design, randomized controlled trial, cohort, case-control, review, cross-section


Medical research study designs are many and varied. At first glance, they may be difficult to distinguish. Knowledge of their specific strengths and limitations is helpful for investigators planning new projects and for readers of the medical literature. The aims of the review are threefold: (i) to present an overview of medical research types, (ii) to attract attention to multiple characteristics of medical study designs, and (iii) to provide a concise educational resource for young researchers in the health sciences. Analysing the characteristics of medical study designs leads to achieving the goals.


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How to Cite

Nowak JK, Walkowiak J. Study designs in medical research and their key characteristics. JMS [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 28 [cited 2024 Jun. 16];92(4):e928. Available from:



Review Papers
Received 2023-09-11
Accepted 2023-12-22
Published 2023-12-28