Insights into solid dosage forms with nonlinear optical imaging




solid-state, chemical imaging, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), second harmonic generation (SHG), pharmaceutical


Microscopic chemical and solid-state structures and their changes in solid drugs and dosage forms can profoundly affect pharmaceutical performance and patient safety. Despite this, their detailed spatially-resolved analysis can be difficult or impossible with established analytical technologies. Multimodal non-linear optical imaging presents opportunities for sensitive and specific chemical and solid-state pharmaceutical imaging. Non-linear optical imaging encompasses several nonlinear optical phenomena, including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and sum frequency/second harmonic generation (SFG/SHG). Imaging in 3D with (sub)micron resolution is rapid, non-destructive, possible in situ in aqueous media, and generally does not require prior sample preparation. This mini-review explores several applications of non-linear optical imaging for solid drug and dosage form analysis.


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Author Biography

Teemu J. Tomberg, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Postdoctoral researcher, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy


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How to Cite

Tomberg T, Arbiol Enguita AM, Strachan CJ. Insights into solid dosage forms with nonlinear optical imaging. JMS [Internet]. 2023 Sep. 29 [cited 2023 Dec. 11];92(3):e914. Available from:



Review Papers
Received 2023-08-17
Accepted 2023-09-05
Published 2023-09-29