Impact of testosterone levels and testosterone replacement therapy on men’s health


  • Zuzanna Karbowska Faculty of Medicine, Poznan University od Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Katarzyna Cierpiszewska Faculty of Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Klara Maruszczak Faculty of Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Ivanna Sukhachova Faculty of Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Dominika Szwankowska Faculty of Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Igor Piotrowski Department of Electroradiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland; Radiobiology Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics, Greater Poland Cancer Centre, Poland



testosterone, testosterone deficiency, functional hypogonadism, late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), testosterone replacement therapy (TRT)


Various studies have shown that testosterone levels have a heavy impact on areas of a man’s health. Low serum testosterone (and, by analogy, late-onset hypogonadism) may be responsible for such conditions as type 2 diabetes, obesity in the abdominal area, and, most of all, heightened cardiovascular risk (CV). Among other outcomes, researchers have pointed out metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia, as well as an increased risk of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorders. There have also been reports of testosterone’s influence on fertility, bone mineral density, and the development of polycythemia. Low testosterone can have a variety of effects, all of which increase the risk of premature death by raising inflammatory marker levels.

Overly high testosterone, however, has been proven to have a notable influence on men's personalities, as well as other psychological and social traits, both in endogenously elevated testosterone levels and in patients with a history of anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

The last decade’s research on testosterone’s impact on the organism has yielded contradictory results. Therefore, examination and understanding of the influence of its abnormal levels prove essential to not only guarantee the best quality of hypogonadism treatment but also to efficiently prevent any side effects or complications associated with testosterone use.


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How to Cite

Karbowska Z, Cierpiszewska K, Maruszczak K, Sukhachova I, Szwankowska D, Piotrowski I. Impact of testosterone levels and testosterone replacement therapy on men’s health. JMS [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 7 [cited 2024 Jun. 16];93(1):e856. Available from:



Review Papers
Received 2023-05-17
Accepted 2023-09-22
Published 2023-12-07