Expression of PD-L1 in triple negative breast cancer




expression, PD-L1, triple negative, breast cancer


Introduction: The second leading cause of cancer deaths in women is breast cancer. Breast cancer awareness has increased due to mammography screenings. The aim of study is to evaluate the prevalence of PD-L1 expression in TNBC cases and to correlate it with clinicopathological parameters. Method: PDL1 expression is measured by immunohistochemical technique using Dako kits, PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharm Dx, on 44 paraffin block samples from Duhok municipal labs. If the specimen has a combined positive score (CPS) of 10 or higher, it expresses PD-L1. Age groups, grades, kinds, stages, and PDL1, lymph node involvement are studied. Results: 44 cross-sectional patients, mean and SD (47.7±14) years old. (54.5%) of patients in middle age group, (63.6%) at grade III, majority (88.6%) have IDC type and (75%) have negative PDL1, (63.6%) have KI69 less than 20, (70.5%) at stage T2, and (45.5%) have N1 lymph node involvement. There is significant association between PDL1 and Ki67, (100%) of patients with positive PDL1 have Ki67 more than 20 while (15.2%) of patients with negative PDL1 have Ki67 more than 20. Conclusion: 75% of middle-aged individuals with grade III had negative PDL1. All PDL1-positive patients have Ki67 above 20. Different research employ 1%, 5%, or 10% cutoff values, which affects PDL1.



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Gina James Keorges, Department of Pathology, College of medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq




Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016;66:7–30. doi: 10.3322/caac.21332.

Zhao Y, Wang R, Shi F, Wu J, Jiang F, Song Q. Diagnostic Efficacy of CT Examination on Early Detection of Lung Cancer during Pandemic of COVID-19. Diagnostics (Basel). 2022 Sep 26;12(10):2317.

Ge J, Zuo W, Chen Y, Shao Z, Yu K. The advance of adjuvant treatment for triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer Biol Med. 2021 Aug 27;19(2):187–201.

Guan J, Lim KS, Mekhail T, Chang CC. Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in the Programmed Death Receptor-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 blockade. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2017;141:851–861.

Sabatier R, Finetti P, Mamessier E, Adelaide J, Chaffanet M, Ali HR, Viens P, Caldas C, Birnbaum D, Bertucci F. Prognostic and predictive value of PD-L1 expression in breast cancer. Oncotarget. 2015;6:5449–5464.

Schalper KA, Velcheti V, Carvajal D, Wimberly H, Brown J, Pusztai L, Rimm DL. In situ tumor PD-L1 mRNA expression is associated with increased TILs and better outcome in breast carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:2773–2782.

Baptista M, Sarian L, Derchain S, Pinto G, Vassallo J. Prognostic significance of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in breast cancer. Hum Pathol. 2016;47:78–84.

Qin T, Zeng YD, Qin G, Xu F, Lu JB, Fang WF, Xue C, Zhan JH, Zhang XK, Zheng QF, Peng RJ, Yuan ZY, Zhang L, Wang SS. High PD-L1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in 870 Chinese patients with breast cancer. Oncotarget. 2015;6:33972–33981.

Ali HR, Glont SE, Blows FM, Provenzano E, Dawson SJ, Liu B, Hiller L, Dunn J, Poole CJ, Bowden S, Earl HM, Pharoah PD, Caldas C. PD-L1 protein expression in breast cancer is rare, enriched in basal-like tumours and associated with infiltrating lymphocytes. Ann Oncol. 2015;26:1488–1493.

Chierico L, Rizzello L, Guan L, Joseph AS, Lewis A, Battaglia G. The role of the two splice variants and extranuclear pathway on Ki-67 regulation in non-cancer and cancer cells. PLoS One. 2017 Feb 10;12(2):e0171815.

Remnant L, Kochanova NY, Reid C, Cisneros-Soberanis F, Earnshaw WC. The intrinsically disorderly story of Ki-67. Open Biol. 2021 Aug;11(8):210120.

Hořejší B, Vinopal S, Sládková V, Dráberová E, Sulimenko V, Sulimenko T, Vosecká V, Philimonenko A, Hozák P, Katsetos CD, Dráber P. Nuclear γ-tubulin associates with nucleoli and interacts with tumor suppressor protein C53. J Cell Physiol. 2012 Jan;227(1):367-82.

Sales Gil R, Vagnarelli P. Ki-67: More Hidden behind a 'Classic Proliferation Marker'. Trends Biochem Sci. 2018 Oct;43(10):747-748.

Oakman C, Moretti E, Pacini G, Santarpia L, Di Leo A. Triple negative breast cancer: a heterogeneous subgroup defined by what it is not. European J Cancer. 2011;47:S370–S372.

McCart Reed AE, Kutasovic JR, Vargas AC, Jayanthan J, Al-Murrani A, Reid LE, Chambers R, Da Silva L, Melville L, Evans E, Porter A, Papadimos D, Thompson EW, Lakhani SR, Simpson PT. An epithelial to mesenchymal transition programme does not usually drive the phenotype of invasive lobular carcinomas. J Pathol. 2016 Mar;238(4):489-94.

Moy B, Rumble RB, Come SE, Davidson NE, Di Leo A, Gralow JR, Hortobagyi GN, Yee D, Smith IE, Chavez-MacGregor M, Nanda R, McArthur HL, Spring L, Reeder-Hayes KE, Ruddy KJ, Unger PS, Vinayak S, Irvin WJ Jr, Armaghani A, Danso MA, Dickson N, Turner SS, Perkins CL, Carey LA. Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy for Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer That is Either Endocrine-Pretreated or Hormone Receptor-Negative: ASCO Guideline Update. J Clin Oncol. 2021 Dec 10;39(35):3938-3958.

Dill EA, Gru AA, Atkins KA, Friedman LA, Moore ME, Bullock TN, Cross JV, Dillon PM, Mills AM. PD-L1 expression and intratumoral heterogeneity across breast cancer subtypes and stages: an assessment of 245 primary and 40 metastatic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41:334–342.

Bae SB, Cho HD, Oh MH, Lee JH, Jang SH, Hong SA, Cho J, Kim SY, Han SW, Lee JE, Kim HJ, Lee HJ. Expression of Programmed Death Receptor Ligand 1 with high tumor- infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with better prognosis in breast cancer. J Breast Cancer. 2016;19:242–251.

Sun WY, Lee YK, Koo JS. Expression of PD-L1 in triple-negative breast cancer based on different immunohistochemical antibodies. J Transl Med. 2016;14:173.

How to Cite

Keorges GJ. Expression of PD-L1 in triple negative breast cancer. JMS [Internet]. 2023 Mar. 31 [cited 2023 Jun. 6];:e806. Available from:



Original Papers
Received 2023-01-18
Accepted 2023-03-27
Published 2023-03-31