Formulation and evaluation of Yemeni potash alum as hydrophilic topical preparations against bacterial skin infections

Yemeni potash alum's topical preparations against bacterial skin infections


  • Moath Refat Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Disease of Ministry of Education, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong, University, China; College of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Al-Hodeidah, Yemen
  • Anes A.M. Thabit College of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Al-Hodeidah, Yemen; Pharmacy department, Al-Razi University, Sana'a, Yemen
  • Hesham Siddick College of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Al-Hodeidah, Yemen
  • Abdul-Rahman Maqboli College of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Al-Hodeidah, Yemen
  • Mohammed Sharah College of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Al-Hodeidah, Yemen
  • Abdul-baqi A. Thabet College of Medical Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Al-Hodeidah, Yemen
  • Manar Refat College of Medical Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Al-Hodeidah, Yemen
  • Aiman Saleh A. Mohammed Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Aden, Aden, Yemen
  • Ahmed Al-Sabati College of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Al-Hodeidah, Yemen; College of Pharmacy, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen



Potassium Alum, Yemen's Alum, Antibacterial, Topical Preparations, Skin and soft tissue infections


Skin and soft tissue infections are common. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause most bacterial skin infections. Yemen's alum is a natural mineral with potent antibacterial and antifungal activity. The current study aimed to verify Yemen alum's antibacterial activity against chosen bacterial strains to formulate a valuable topical preparation. We formulated twenty-three formulations involving four non-adjusted aqueous solutions, eight adjusted pH aqueous solutions, three Oil/Water cream formulations, and eight glycerin solutions, all with different alum concentrations. After that, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy against the selected bacterial strains. Additionally, we performed stability testing (almost six weeks) to determine the chosen preparations' estimated shelf life (t90).  Alum showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Finally, it was concluded that Oil/Water cream (10% alum) is viable preparation for large-scale production.


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How to Cite

Refat M, Thabit AA, Siddick H, Maqboli A-R, Sharah M, A. Thabet A- baqi, et al. Formulation and evaluation of Yemeni potash alum as hydrophilic topical preparations against bacterial skin infections : Yemeni potash alum’s topical preparations against bacterial skin infections. JMS [Internet]. 2022 Nov. 14 [cited 2023 Dec. 11];91(4):e713. Available from:



Original Papers
Received 2022-07-30
Accepted 2022-10-19
Published 2022-11-14