Forthcoming

The role of the dietary patterns in the cardiovascular disease risk prevention

Authors

  • Marta Pelczyńska Chair and Department Of Treatment Of Obesity, Metabolic Disorders and Clinical Dietetics, Poznan University Of Medical Sciences, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4548-032X
  • Weronika Burak The Students of Second Year, Medical Department, Poznan University Of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Stanisław Królak The Students of Second Year, Medical Department, Poznan University Of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Adrianna Geppert The Students of Second Year, Medical Department, Poznan University Of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Marcel Lipczyński The Students of Second Year, Medical Department, Poznan University Of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Julia Grzybołowska The Students of Second Year, Medical Department, Poznan University Of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Patryk Kociubiński The Students of Second Year, Medical Department, Poznan University Of Medical Sciences, Poland

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20883/medical.e704

Keywords:

cardiovascular risk, Mediterranean diet, ketogenic diet, vegetarian diet, DASH diet

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a part of a wide group of diseases, which became main threat to the life and health of the population in highly developed countries. To prevent and treat CVD, in addition to implementation of pharmacological methods, there are a number of lifestyle components, including eating habits, that significantly influence the development of these diseases. The dietary patterns strongly correlate with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Modifications of the dietary habits allow to control many parameters such as: body weight, cholesterol/triglyceride levels or blood pressure. Alternative diets are frequently used to reduce the risk of developing a CVD. The main recommended dietary patterns includes Mediterranean diet (MD), the DASH diet (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) and mild variants of vegetarianism. The more controversial nutritional styles includes the ketogenic or vegan diets. Due to various assumptions as well as the mechanisms of action of each diets, an attempt of its evaluation have been made. The aim of our study is to review and analyze the available data on the impact of various nutrition models regarding to cardiovascular diseases risk prevention.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds) (accessed 10 May 2022).

Trzeciak B, Ścisło J, Trzeciak B, et al. Modyfikacja stylu życia a choroby układu sercowo-naczyniowego. Chor Serca Naczyń. 2004;1(2):109–114.

Kilkenny MF, Dunstan L, Busingye D, et al. Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poor among individuals with risk factors for CVD. PLoS One. 2017 Feb;12(2):e0172941. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172941. PMID: 28245267. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172941

Wojda A, Janczy A. Zagrożenie wystąpienia schorzeń sercowo-naczyniowych w aspekcie spożycia nasyconych kwasów tłuszczowych pochodzenia roślinnego i zwierzęcego. Med Og Nauk Zdr. 2021;27(2):99–106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26444/monz/133424. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26444/monz/133424

Pachocka L, Kłosiewicz-Latoszek L. Dietitian in health care - the missing link of the medical staff. Zdr Publ Zarz. 2017;15:270–276. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4467/20842627OZ.17.030.7810

Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Van Horn L. Components of a cardioprotective diet: new insights. Circulation. 2011 Jun;123(24):2870-91. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.968735. PMID: 21690503. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.968735

Santos-Buelga C, González-Manzano S, González-Paramás AM. Wine, Polyphenols, and Mediterranean Diets. What Else Is There to Say? Molecules. 2021 Sep;26(18):5537. doi: 10.3390/molecules26185537. PMID: 34577008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185537

Kahleova H, Levin S, Barnard ND. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2018 May-Jun;61(1):54-61. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2018.05.002. PMID: 29800598. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2018.05.002

Ballaban-Gil K, Callahan C, O’Dell C, et al. Complications of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 1998 Jul;39(7):744-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1998.tb01160.x. PMID: 9670903. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1998.tb01160.x

FSVO FFS and VO. Vegan diets: review of nutritional and health benefits and risks (2018), https://www.blv.admin.ch/blv/en/home/das-blv/organisation/kommissionen/eek/vor-und-nachteile-vegane-ernaehrung.html (accessed 10 May 2022).

Renzella J, Townsend N, Jewell J, et al. What National and Subnational Interventions and Policies Based on Mediterranean and Nordic Diets are Recommended or Implemented in the WHO European Region, and is there Evidence of Effectiveness in Reducing Noncommunicable Diseases? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519076/ (2018, accessed 10 May 2022).

Martínez-González MA, Gea A, Ruiz-Canela M. The Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Health. Circ Res. 2019 Mar;124(5):779-798. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313348. PMID: 30817261. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313348

Mediterranean diet Archives. Seven Countries Study. The first study to relate diet with cardiovascular disease, https://www.sevencountriesstudy.com/tag/mediterranean-diet/ (accessed 10 May 2022).

Knoops KTB, de Groot LCPGM, Kromhout D, et al. Mediterranean Diet, Lifestyle Factors, and 10-Year Mortality in Elderly European Men and WomenThe HALE Project. JAMA. 2004 Sep;292(12):1433-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.292.12.1433. PMID: 15383513. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.12.1433

Tosti V, Bertozzi B, Fontana L. Health Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 Mar;73(3):318-326. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glx227. PMID: 29244059. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glx227

Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, et al. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun;378(25):e34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1800389. PMID: 29897866. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1800389

Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' (CTT) Collaborators, Mihaylova B, Emberson J, et al. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: meta-analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials. The Lancet. 2012 Aug;380(9841):581-90. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60367-5. PMID: 22607822. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60367-5

Trichopoulou A, Costacou T, Bamia C, et al. Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Survival in a Greek Population. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun;348(26):2599-608. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa025039. PMID: 12826634. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa025039

Bonaccio M, Pounis G, Cerletti C, et al. Mediterranean diet, dietary polyphenols and low grade inflammation: results from the MOLI‐SANI study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Jan;83(1):107-113. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12924. PMID: 26935858. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12924

Lopez-Garcia E, Schulze MB, Meigs JB, et al. Consumption of Trans Fatty Acids Is Related to Plasma Biomarkers of Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction. J Nutr. 2005 Mar;135(3):562-6. doi: 10.1093/jn/135.3.562. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/135.3.562

Casas R, Castro-Barquero S, Estruch R, et al. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Dec;19(12):3988. doi: 10.3390/ijms19123988. PMID: 30544955. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123988

Medina-Remón A, Casas R, Tressserra-Rimbau A, et al. Polyphenol intake from a Mediterranean diet decreases inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis: a substudy of the PREDIMED trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Jan;83(1):114-128. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12986. PMID: 27100393. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12986

Li H, Förstermann U. Uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase in atherosclerosis and vascular disease. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;13(2):161-7. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2013.01.006. PMID: 23395155. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2013.01.006

Castro-Barquero S, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Doménech M, et al. Relationship between Mediterranean Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Obesity. Nutrients. 2018 Oct;10(10):1523. doi: 10.3390/nu10101523. PMID: 30336572. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101523

Pan XF, Marklund M, Wu JH. Fish consumption for cardiovascular health: benefits from long-chain omega-3 fatty acids versus potential harms due to mercury. Heart. 2019 Sep;105(18):1384-1385. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2019-315187. PMID: 31285309. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2019-315187

Jayedi A, Zargar MS, Shab-Bidar S. Fish consumption and risk of myocardial infarction: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis suggests a regional difference. Nutr Res. 2019 Feb;62:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2018.10.009. PMID: 30803501. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2018.10.009

Yang B, Shi MQ, Li ZH, et al. Fish, Long-Chain n-3 PUFA and Incidence of Elevated Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2016 Jan;8(1):58. doi: 10.3390/nu8010058. PMID: 26805877. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010058

Zhao W, Tang H, Yang X, et al. Fish Consumption and Stroke Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2019 Mar;28(3):604-611. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.10.036. PMID: 30470619. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.10.036

Ajith TA, Jayakumar TG. Omega-3 fatty acids in coronary heart disease: Recent updates and future perspectives. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2019 Jan;46(1):11-18. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.13034. PMID: 30230571. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13034

Zhang B, Xiong K, Cai J, Ma A. Fish Consumption and Coronary Heart Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2020 Jul;12(8):2278. doi: 10.3390/nu12082278. PMID: 32751304. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082278

Bechthold A, Boeing H, Schwedhelm C, et al. Food groups and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(7):1071-1090. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1392288. PMID: 29039970. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2017.1392288

Esposito K, Kastorini CM, Panagiotakos DB, Giugliano D. Mediterranean diet and weight loss: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011 Feb;9(1):1-12. doi: 10.1089/met.2010.0031. PMID: 20973675. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2010.0031

Mancini JG, Filion KB, Atallah R, Eisenberg MJ. Systematic Review of the Mediterranean Diet for Long-Term Weight Loss. Am J Med. 2016 Apr;129(4):407-415.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.11.028. PMID: 26721635. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.11.028

Brown JD, Buscemi J, Milsom V, et al. Effects on cardiovascular risk factors of weight losses limited to 5-10. Transl Behav Med. 2016 Sep;6(3):339-46. doi: 10.1007/s13142-015-0353-9. PMID: 27528523. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13142-015-0353-9

Michalsen A, Lehmann N, Pithan C, et al. Mediterranean diet has no effect on markers of inflammation and metabolic risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;60(4):478-85. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602340. PMID: 16306923. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602340

Fontana L, Hu FB. Optimal body weight for health and longevity: bridging basic, clinical, and population research. Aging Cell. 2014 Jun;13(3):391-400. doi: 10.1111/acel.12207. PMID: 24628815. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.12207

Hannuksela ML, Rämet ME, Nissinen AET, et al. Effects of ethanol on lipids and atherosclerosis. Pathophysiology. 2004 Apr;10(2):93-103. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2003.10.009. PMID: 15006415. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2003.10.009

Chiavaroli L, Viguiliouk E, Nishi SK, et al. DASH Dietary Pattern and Cardiometabolic Outcomes: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Nutrients. 2019 Feb;11(2):338. doi: 10.3390/nu11020338. PMID: 30764511. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020338

Siervo M, Lara J, Chowdhury S, et al. Effects of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2015 Jan;113(1):1-15. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514003341. PMID: 25430608. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514003341

Parikh P, McDaniel MC, Ashen MD, et al. Diets and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidence-Based Assessment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 May 3;45(9):1379-87. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.11.068. PMID: 15862406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2004.11.068

Akita S, Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, et al. Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship. Hypertension. 2003 Jul;42(1):8-13. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000074668.08704.6E. PMID: 12756219. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000074668.08704.6E

Juraschek SP, Miller ER, Weaver CM, et al. Effects of Sodium Reduction and the DASH Diet in Relation to Baseline Blood Pressure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Dec;70(23):2841-2848. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.10.011. PMID: 29141784. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.10.011

Girardin E, Caverzasio J, Iwai J, et al. Pressure natriuresis in isolated kidneys from hypertension-prone and hypertension-resistant rats (Dahl rats). Kidney Int. 1980 Jul;18(1):10-9. doi: 10.1038/ki.1980.105. PMID: 7218656. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.1980.105

Grillo A, Salvi L, Coruzzi P, et al. Sodium Intake and Hypertension. Nutrients. 2019 Aug;11(9):1970. doi: 10.3390/nu11091970. PMID: 31438636. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091970

Antman EM, Appel LJ, Balentine D, et al. Stakeholder discussion to reduce population-wide sodium intake and decrease sodium in the food supply: a conference report from the American Heart Association sodium conference 2013 planning group. Circulation 2014 Jun;129:e660-79. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000051. PMID: 24799511. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000051

Filippou CD, Tsioufis CP, Thomopoulos CG, et al. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet and Blood Pressure Reduction in Adults with and without Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Adv Nutr. 2020 Sep 1;11(5):1150-1160. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmaa041. PMID: 32330233. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa041

Arab A, Khorvash F, Kazemi M, et al. Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on clinical, quality of life and mental health outcomes in women with migraine: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2021 Nov;1-10. doi: 10.1017/S000711452100444X. PMID: 34763733. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711452100444X

Lin P-H, Allen JD, Li Y-J, et al. Blood Pressure-Lowering Mechanisms of the DASH Dietary Pattern. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:472396. doi: 10.1155/2012/472396. PMID: 22496969. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/472396

Appel LJ, Champagne CM, Harsha DW, et al. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: main results of the PREMIER clinical trial. JAMA. 2003 Apr;289(16):2083-93. doi: 10.1001/jama.289.16.2083. PMID: 12709466. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.16.2083

Arent-Piotrowska K. Hipercholesterolemia – zmora dzisiejszych czasów. Co zrobić, by zapobiec jej konsekwencjom w świetle aktualnych zaleceń kardiologicznych. Probl Hig Epidemiol. 2018,99(2): 108-113.

Mensink RP, Katan MB. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arterioscler Thromb. 1992 Aug;12(8):911-9. doi: 10.1161/01.atv.12.8.911. PMID: 1386252. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.12.8.911

Clarke R, Frost C, Collins R, et al. Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ. 1997 Jan;314(7074):112-7. doi: 10.1136/bmj.314.7074.112. PMID: 9006469. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7074.112

Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure-lowering diet: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jul;74(1):80-9. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/74.1.80. PMID: 11451721. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/74.1.80

Asemi Z, Samimi M, Tabassi Z, et al. A randomized controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of DASH diet on insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress in gestational diabetes. Nutrition. 2013 Apr;29(4):619-24. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2012.11.020. PMID: 23466048. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.11.020

Mertens E, Markey O, Geleijnse JM, et al. Adherence to a healthy diet in relation to cardiovascular incidence and risk markers: evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Apr;57(3):1245-1258. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1408-0. PMID: 28293738. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1408-0

Salehi-Abargouei A, Maghsoudi Z, Shirani F, et al. Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet on fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular diseases-incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis on observational prospective studies. Nutrition. 2013 Apr;29(4):611-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2012.12.018. PMID: 23466047. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.12.018

Soltani S, Shirani F, Chitsazi MJ, Salehi-Abargouei A. The effect of dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Obes Rev. 2016 May;17(5):442-54. doi: 10.1111/obr.12391. PMID: 26990451. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12391

Razavi Zade M, Telkabadi MH, Bahmani F, et al. The effects of DASH diet on weight loss and metabolic status in adults with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized clinical trial. Liver Int. 2016 Apr;36(4):563-71. doi: 10.1111/liv.12990. PMID: 26503843. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.12990

Lari A, Sohouli MH, Fatahi S, et al. The effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on metabolic risk factors in patients with chronic disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2021 Sep;31(10):2766-2778. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2021.05.030. PMID: 34353704. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.05.030

Keith L, Seo CA, Rowsemitt C, et al. Ketogenic diet as a potential intervention for lipedema. Med Hypotheses. 2021 Jan;146:110435. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110435. PMID: 33303304. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110435

Paoli A. Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Feb;11(2):2092-107. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110202092. PMID: 24557522. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110202092

Nasser S, Vialichka V, Biesiekierska M, et al. Effects of ketogenic diet and ketone bodies on the cardiovascular system: Concentration matters. World J Diabetes. 2020 Dec;11(12):584-595. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v11.i12.584. PMID: 33384766. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v11.i12.584

Fukao T, Lopaschuk GD, Mitchell GA. Pathways and control of ketone body metabolism: on the fringe of lipid biochemistry. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004 Mar;70(3):243-51. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2003.11.001. PMID: 14769483. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2003.11.001

Unwin DJ, Tobin SD, Murray SW, et al. Substantial and Sustained Improvements in Blood Pressure, Weight and Lipid Profiles from a Carbohydrate Restricted Diet: An Observational Study of Insulin Resistant Patients in Primary Care. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jul;16(15):2680. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16152680. PMID: 31357547. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152680

Cicero AF, Benelli M, Brancaleoni M, et al. Middle and Long-Term Impact of a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet on Cardiometabolic Factors: A Multi-Center, Cross-Sectional, Clinical Study. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev. 2015 Dec;22(4):389-94. doi: 10.1007/s40292-015-0096-1. PMID: 25986079. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40292-015-0096-1

Huntriss R, Campbell M, Bedwell C. The interpretation and effect of a low-carbohydrate diet in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 Mar;72(3):311-325. doi: 10.1038/s41430-017-0019-4. PMID: 29269890. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-017-0019-4

Bueno NB, Melo ISV de, Oliveira SL de, et al. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2013 Oct;110(7):1178-87. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513000548. PMID: 23651522. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513000548

Saslow LR, Mason AE, Kim S, et al. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res. 2017 Feb;19(2):e36. doi: 10.2196/jmir.5806. PMID: 28193599. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.5806

Alarim RA, Alasmre FA, Alotaibi HA, et al. Effects of the Ketogenic Diet on Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients: Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Cureus. 2020 Oct;12(10):e10796. doi: 10.7759/cureus.10796. PMID: 33163300. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.10796

Yuan X, Wang J, Yang S, et al. Effect of the ketogenic diet on glycemic control, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism in patients with T2DM: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Diabetes. 2020 Nov;10(1):38. doi: 10.1038/s41387-020-00142-z. PMID: 33257645. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41387-020-00142-z

Choi YJ, Jeon SM, Shin S. Impact of a Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Obesity or Overweight and with or without Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2020 Jul;12(7):2005. doi: 10.3390/nu12072005. PMID: 32640608. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072005

Li M, Yuan J. Effects of very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet on lipid metabolism in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Nutr Hosp. 2022 Mar 4. English. doi: 10.20960/nh.03987. PMID: 35243868.

Johnstone AM, Horgan GW, Murison SD, et al. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):44-55. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/87.1.44. PMID: 18175736. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.1.44

Moreno B, Crujeiras AB, Bellido D, et al. Obesity treatment by very low-calorie-ketogenic diet at two years: reduction in visceral fat and on the burden of disease. Endocrine. 2016 Dec;54(3):681-690. doi: 10.1007/s12020-016-1050-2. PMID: 27623967. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-016-1050-2

Phinney SD, Horton ES, Sims EAH, et al. Capacity for Moderate Exercise in Obese Subjects after Adaptation to a Hypocaloric, Ketogenic Diet. J Clin Invest. 1980 Nov;66(5):1152-61. doi: 10.1172/JCI109945. PMID: 7000826. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI109945

Goss AM, Gower B, Soleymani T, et al. Effects of weight loss during a very low carbohydrate diet on specific adipose tissue depots and insulin sensitivity in older adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2020 Aug 12;17:64. doi: 10.1186/s12986-020-00481-9. PMID: 32817749. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12986-020-00481-9

O'Neill B, Raggi P. The ketogenic diet: Pros and cons. Atherosclerosis. 2020 Jan;292:119-126. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.11.021. PMID: 31805451. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.11.021

Crosby L, Davis B, Joshi S, et al. Ketogenic Diets and Chronic Disease: Weighing the Benefits Against the Risks. Front Nutr. 2021 Jul;8:702802. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.702802. PMID: 34336911. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.702802

Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Al-Zaid NS. Efficacy of Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Med Princ Pract. 2021;30(3):223-235. doi: 10.1159/000512142. PMID: 33040057. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000512142

Bielohuby M, Matsuura M, Herbach N, et al. Short-term exposure to low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets induces low bone mineral density and reduces bone formation in rats. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Feb;25(2):275-84. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.090813. PMID: 19653818. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.090813

Milder JB, Liang L-P, Patel M. Acute oxidative stress and systemic Nrf2 activation by the ketogenic diet. Neurobiol Dis. 2010 Oct;40(1):238-44. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2010.05.030. PMID: 20594978. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2010.05.030

Westman EC, Mavropoulos J, Yancy WS, et al. A review of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003 Nov;5(6):476-83. doi: 10.1007/s11883-003-0038-6. PMID: 14525681. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-003-0038-6

Acharya P, Acharya C, Thongprayoon C, et al. Incidence and Characteristics of Kidney Stones in Patients on Ketogenic Diet: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Diseases. 2021 May;9(2):39. doi: 10.3390/diseases9020039. PMID: 34070285. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases9020039

Batch JT, Lamsal SP, Adkins M, et al. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Ketogenic Diet: A Review Article. Cureus. 2020 Aug 10;12(8):e9639. doi: 10.7759/cureus.9639. PMID: 32923239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9639

Hargreaves SM, Raposo A, Saraiva A, et al. Vegetarian Diet: An Overview through the Perspective of Quality of Life Domains. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Apr;18(8):4067. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18084067. PMID: 33921521. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084067

Satija A, Hu FB. Plant-based diets and cardiovascular health. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2018 Oct;28(7):437-441. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2018.02.004. PMID: 29496410. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2018.02.004

FSVO FFS and VO. Vegan diets: review of nutritional and health benefits and risks (2018), https://www.blv.admin.ch/blv/en/home/das-blv/organisation/kommissionen/eek/vor-und-nachteile-vegane-ernaehrung.html (accessed 10 May 2022).

Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, et al. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):516S-524S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/70.3.516s. PMID: 10479225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/70.3.516s

Huang T, Yang B, Zheng J, et al. Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(4):233-40. doi: 10.1159/000337301. PMID: 22677895. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000337301

Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Travis RC, et al. Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar;97(3):597-603. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.044073. PMID: 23364007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.044073

Cullen P. Evidence that triglycerides are an independent coronary heart disease risk factor. Am J Cardiol. 2000 Nov;86(9):943-9. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9149(00)01127-9. PMID: 11053704. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(00)01127-9

Zhang H-J, Han P, Sun S-Y, et al. Attenuated associations between increasing BMI and unfavorable lipid profiles in Chinese Buddhist vegetarians. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(2):249-56. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.07. PMID: 23635369.

Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):271-5. doi: 10.1017/s0029665199000373. PMID: 10466166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665199000373

Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R, et al. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 May;32(5):791-6. doi: 10.2337/dc08-1886. PMID: 19351712. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/dc08-1886

Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Davey GK, et al. Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Jun;27(6):728-34. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802300. PMID: 12833118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802300

Huang RY, Huang CC, Hu FB, Chavarro JE. Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Gen Intern Med. 2016 Jan;31(1):109-16. doi: 10.1007/s11606-015-3390-7. PMID: 26138004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-015-3390-7

Dattilo AM, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Aug;56(2):320-8. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/56.2.320. PMID: 1386186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/56.2.320

Lee KW, Loh HC, Ching SM, et al. Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Pressure Lowering: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. Nutrients. 2020 May;12(6):1604. doi: 10.3390/nu12061604. PMID: 32486102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061604

Yokoyama Y, Nishimura K, Barnard ND, et al. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Apr;174(4):577-87. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.14547. PMID: 24566947. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.14547

Ernst E, Pietsch L, Matrai A, et al. Blood rheology in vegetarians. Br J Nutr. 1986 Nov;56(3):555-60. doi: 10.1079/bjn19860136. PMID: 3676231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19860136

Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, et al. Low body mass index in non-meat eaters: the possible roles of animal fat, dietary fibre and alcohol. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998 May;22(5):454-60. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0800607. PMID: 9622343. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0800607

Anderson JW, Baird P, Davis RH, et al. Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutr Rev. 2009 Apr;67(4):188-205. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00189.x. PMID: 19335713. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00189.x

Kromhout D, Bloemberg B, Seidell JC, et al. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels: the Seven Countries Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Mar;25(3):301-6. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801568. PMID: 11319625. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801568

John JH, Ziebland S, Yudkin P, et al. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Jun;359(9322):1969-74. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(02)98858-6. PMID: 12076551. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)98858-6

Szeto YT, Kwok TCY, Benzie IFF. Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk. Nutrition. 2004 Oct;20(10):863-6. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2004.06.006. PMID: 15474873. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2004.06.006

Vita JA, Keaney JF, Raby KE, et al. Low plasma ascorbic acid independently predicts the presence of an unstable coronary syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Apr;31(5):980-6. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(98)00059-x. PMID: 9561997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00059-X

Bickel C, Rupprecht HJ, Blankenberg S, et al. Serum uric acid as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2002 Jan;89(1):12-7. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9149(01)02155-5. PMID: 11779515. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(01)02155-5

Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS, et al. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med. 2013 May;19(5):576-85. doi: 10.1038/nm.3145. PMID: 23563705. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.3145

Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010 Jun;121(21):2271-83. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977. PMID: 20479151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977

Snowdon DA, Phillips RL. Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes? Am J Public Health. 1985 May;75(5):507-12. doi: 10.2105/ajph.75.5.507. PMID: 3985239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.75.5.507

Kahleova H, Matoulek M, Malinska H, et al. Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2011 May;28(5):549-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03209.x. PMID: 21480966. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03209.x

Sargeant LA, Khaw KT, Bingham S, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and population glycosylated haemoglobin levels: the EPIC-Norfolk Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 May;55(5):342-8. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601162. PMID: 11378807. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601162

Villegas R, Shu XO, Gao Y-T, et al. Vegetable but not fruit consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese women. J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):574-80. doi: 10.1093/jn/138.3.574. PMID: 18287369. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/138.3.574

Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJA, et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83. doi: 10.2337/dc06-0606. PMID: 16873779. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/dc06-0606

American Diabetes Association. Evidence-Based Nutrition Principles and Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes and Related Complications. Diabetes Care. 2003 Jan;26 Suppl 1:S51-61. doi: 10.2337/diacare.26.2007.s51. PMID: 12502619. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.26.2007.S51

Quek J, Lim G, Lim WH, et al. The Association of Plant-Based Diet With Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Prospect Cohort Studies. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021 Nov;8:756810. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2021.756810. PMID: 34805312. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.756810

Petermann-Rocha F, Parra-Soto S, Gray S, et al. Vegetarians, fish, poultry, and meat-eaters: who has higher risk of cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality? A prospective study from UK Biobank. Eur Heart J. 2021 Mar;42(12):1136-1143. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa939. PMID: 33313747. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa939

Craig WJ. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec;25(6):613-20. doi: 10.1177/0884533610385707. PMID: 21139125. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0884533610385707

Pawlak R, Parrott SJ, Raj S, et al. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians? Nutr Rev. 2013 Feb;71(2):110-7. doi: 10.1111/nure.12001. PMID: 23356638. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12001

Pawlak R. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians? Am J Prev Med. 2015 Jun;48(6):e11-26. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.009. PMID: 25998928. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.009

Weikert C, Trefflich I, Menzel J, et al. Vitamin and Mineral Status in a Vegan Diet. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2020 Aug;117(35-36):575-582. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2020.0575. PMID: 33161940. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2020.0575

How to Cite

1.
Pelczyńska M, Burak W, Królak S, Geppert A, Lipczyński M, Grzybołowska J, Kociubiński P. The role of the dietary patterns in the cardiovascular disease risk prevention. JMS [Internet]. 2022 Sep. 20 [cited 2022 Oct. 6];:e704. Available from: https://jms.ump.edu.pl/index.php/JMS/article/view/704

Issue

Section

Review Papers
Received 2022-07-13
Accepted 2022-09-20
Published 2022-09-20