A Thousand Words About Modern Medical Education: A Mini-Review Concerning the Theory of Education


  • Mustafa Hussein Ajlan Al-Jarshawi Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; Leicester Medical School, University of Leicester, United Kingdom; Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4600-2701
  • Ahmed Al-Imam Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Doctoral School, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland; PUMS Doctoral School, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland; Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1846-9424




Theory of Education, Bloom's taxonomy, FAIR principles, Gagné theory of learning, Harden's ten questions, Miller's pyramid, Outcome-based education, SMART method, SPICES model


The present article represents a mini-review and a reflective essay concerning modern medical education methods, as well as ways to adapt them to medical education's local conditions (disciplines), including basic medical sciences. We introduced Gagné's theory of learning and other theories – Constructivist, Experiential, and Humanistic – followed by Dennik's "twelve tips" for effective learning and Harden's ten questions for curriculum development. Outcome-based education (OBE) was discussed and related to relevant concepts within Miller's pyramid and Bloom's taxonomy. Harden's SPICES model was emphasized concerning education strategies while discussing the assessment of learning (AoL), assessment as learning (AaL), and assessment for learning (AfL). Finally, the authors advise exploring the adaptation of modern education methods for a specific discipline of basic medical sciences – Human Anatomy – by incorporating the abovementioned concepts and integrating different AfL and AaL assessment tools while conveying a graphical concept map for this scenario.


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How to Cite

Al-Jarshawi MHA, Al-Imam A. A Thousand Words About Modern Medical Education: A Mini-Review Concerning the Theory of Education. JMS [Internet]. 2022 May 23 [cited 2024 Jun. 16];91(2):e636. Available from: https://jms.ump.edu.pl/index.php/JMS/article/view/636



Thousand words about...
Received 2022-03-18
Accepted 2022-05-15
Published 2022-05-23