The possible role of molecular mimicry in SARS-CoV-2-mediated autoimmunity: an immunobiochemical basis
Keywords:autoimmunity and COVID19, molecular mimicry and COVID19, SARS-CoV-2 autoimmunity, molecular mimicry
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), persists as a threat to global health and continues to be a rapidly evolving condition. Although COVID19 is negatively correlated with the existing comorbidities in terms of the clinical outcome, the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to mediate the novel, or to exacerbate the existing autoimmune conditions, has generated considerable interest, due to its potential implications both with regard to patients suffering from autoimmune conditions, as well as to the long-term consequences of the disease. However, although molecular mimicry has been postulated as a potential causative factor in post-COVID19 autoimmunity and multi-organ damage, a substantial body of research needs to emerge in order to achieve a more definitive conclusion. We investigated the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 peptide sequences behaving as molecular mimics with a potential to trigger an autoimmune response. Thus, on the basis of analysis in silico, we were able to develop a plausible case for the molecular mimicry as a potential aetiological mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-mediated autoimmunity, both in a multi-organ damage context or outside of the viral phase of infection. Interestingly, this is the first time that the peptide sequence of MACROD1 has been implicated in the COVID-19 autoimmunity. Additionally, we also confirm that PARP9 and PARP14 may be involved in the process.
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. 2020 Feb 20 [cited 2020 Apr 5];382(8):727–33. Available from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017.
Halpert G, Shoenfeld Y. SARS-CoV-2, the autoimmune virus. Autoimmunity Reviews [Internet]. 2020 Dec 1 [cited 2021 Jan 27];19(12):102695. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598743/.
Kim B, Deshpande Kaistha S, Rouse BT. Viruses and autoimmunity. Autoimmunity [Internet]. 2005 Dec [cited 2021 Jan 27];38(8):559–65. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08916930500356583.
Caso F, Costa L, Ruscitti P, Navarini L, del Puente A, Giacomelli R, et al. Could Sars-coronavirus-2 trigger autoimmune and/or autoinflammatory mechanisms in genetically predisposed subjects? Autoimmunity Reviews [Internet]. 2020 May 1 [cited 2021 Jan 27];19(5):102524. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271072/.
Du RH, Liang LR, Yang CQ, Wang W, Cao TZ, Li M, et al. Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARSCoV- 2: A prospective cohort study. European Respiratory Journal [Internet]. 2020 May 1 [cited 2020 Oct 27];55(5). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00524-2020.
Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Medicine [Internet]. 2020 May 1 [cited 2020 Oct 31];46(5):846–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-05991-x.
Yazdanpanah N, Rezaei N. Autoimmune complications of COVID-19. Journal of Medical Virology [Internet]. 2021 Aug 31 [cited 2021 Sep 29]; Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jmv.27292.
Obando-Pereda G. Can molecular mimicry explain the cytokine storm of SARS-CoV-2?: An in silico approach. Journal of Medical Virology [Internet]. 2021 Sep 1 [cited 2021 Sep 29];93(9):5350–7. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jmv.27040.
Mortaz E, Tabarsi P, Varahram M, Folkerts G, Adcock IM. The Immune Response and Immunopathology of COVID-19. Frontiers in Immunology [Internet]. 2020 Aug 26 [cited 2020 Oct 27];11:2037. Available from: www.frontiersin.org.
Xiao F, Han M, Zhu X, Tang Y, Huang E, Zou H, et al. The immune dysregulations in COVID-19: implications for the management of rheumatic diseases. Modern rheumatology [Internet]. 2021 Jan 11;1–11. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33427554.
Wen W, Su W, Tang H, Le W, Zhang X, Zheng Y, et al. Immune cell profiling of COVID-19 patients in the recovery stage by single-cell sequencing. Cell discovery [Internet]. 2020 May 4 [cited 2020 May 17];6(1):31. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32377375.
Hoepel W, Chen H-J, Allahverdiyeva S, Manz X, Aman J, Bonta P, et al. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG from severely ill COVID-19 patients promotes macrophage hyper-inflammatory responses. 2020; .
Liao M, Liu Y, Yuan J, Wen Y, Xu G, Zhao J, et al. Single-cell landscape of bronchoalveolar immune cells in patients with COVID-19. Nature Medicine [Internet]. 2020 Jun 1 [cited 2021 Jan 31];26(6):842–4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0901-9.
Zhang YY, Li BR, Ning BT. The Comparative Immunological Characteristics of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus Infections. Frontiers in Immunology [Internet]. 2020 Aug 14 [cited 2021 Jan 27];11:2033. Available from: www.frontiersin.org.
Long Q-X, Tang X-J, Shi Q-L, Li Q, Deng H-J, Yuan J, et al. Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nature Medicine [Internet]. 2020 Jun 18 [cited 2020 Jul 6];1–5. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0965-6.
Lin L, Lu L, Cao W, Li T. Hypothesis for potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection–a review of immune changes in patients with viral pneumonia. Emerging Microbes & Infections [Internet]. 2020 Jan 1 [cited 2020 Apr 5];9(1):727–32. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2020.1746199.
Kaneko N, Kurata M, Yamamoto T, Morikawa S, Masumoto J. The role of interleukin-1 in general pathology. Inflammation and Regeneration [Internet]. 2019 Jun 6 [cited 2020 Nov 15];39(1):1–16. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41232-019-0101-5.
IL1B interleukin 1 beta [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 6]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=3553.
Murakami M, Kamimura D, Hirano T. Pleiotropy and Specificity: Insights from the Interleukin 6 Family of Cytokines. Immunity. 2019 Apr 16;50(4):812–31. .
Aguilar JB, Gutierrez JB. Investigating the Impact of Asymptomatic Carriers on COVID-19 Transmission. medRxiv. 2020 Mar 31;2020.03.18.20037994. .
Cañas CA. The triggering of post-COVID-19 autoimmunity phenomena could be associated with both transient immunosuppression and an inappropriate form of immune reconstitution in susceptible individuals. Medical Hypotheses [Internet]. 2020 Dec 1 [cited 2021 Jan 24];145:110345. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC7556280/?report=abstract.
Xiao M, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Qin X, Xia P, Cao W, et al. Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19. Arthritis and Rheumatology. 2020 Dec 1;72(12):1998–2004. .
Vojdani A, Kharrazian D. Potential antigenic cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and human tissue with a possible link to an increase in autoimmune diseases. Clinical Immunology. 2020 Aug 1;217:108480. .
Bastard P, Gervais A, Voyer T le, Rosain J, Philippot Q, Manry J, et al. Autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs are present in ~4% of uninfected individuals over 70 years old and account for ~20% of COVID-19 deaths. Science Immunology [Internet]. 2021 Aug 19 [cited 2021 Sep 29];6(62). Available from: https://www.science.org/doi/abs/10.1126/sciimmunol.abl4340.
Bastard P, Rosen LB, Zhang Q, Michailidis E, Hoffmann HH, Zhang Y, et al. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19. Science [Internet]. 2020 Oct 23 [cited 2021 Sep 29];370(6515). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd4585.
Jones VG, Mills M, Suarez D, Hogan CA, Yeh D, Bradley Segal J, et al. COVID-19 and Kawasaki Disease: Novel Virus and Novel Case. Hospital pediatrics [Internet]. 2020 Apr 7 [cited 2021 Feb 1];10(6). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32265235/.
Verdoni L, Mazza A, Gervasoni A, Martelli L, Ruggeri M, Ciuffreda M, et al. An outbreak of severe Kawasaki-like disease at the Italian epicentre of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: an observational cohort study. The Lancet [Internet]. 2020 Jun 6 [cited 2021 Feb 1];395(10239):1771–8. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC7220177/?report=abstract.
Manganotti P, Pesavento V, Buoite Stella A, Bonzi L, Campagnolo E, Bellavita G, et al. Miller Fisher syndrome diagnosis and treatment in a patient with SARS-CoV-2. Journal of NeuroVirology [Internet]. 2020 Aug 1 [cited 2021 Feb 1];26(4):605–6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00858-9.
Zulfiqar A-A, Lorenzo-Villalba N, Hassler P, Andrès E. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Patient with Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. 2020 Apr 30 [cited 2021 Feb 1];382(18):e43. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179995/.
Bonometti R, Sacchi MC, Stobbione P, Lauritano EC, Tamiazzo S, Marchegiani A, et al. The first case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) triggered by COVID-19 infection. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2020;24(18):9695–7.
Sedaghat Z, Karimi N. Guillain Barre syndrome associated with COVID-19 infection: A case report. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience [Internet]. 2020 Jun 1 [cited 2021 Feb 1];76:233–5. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC7158817/?report=abstract.
Giannini M, Ohana M, Nespola B, Zanframundo G, Geny B, Meyer A. Similarities between COVID-19 and anti-MDA5 syndrome: what can we learn for better care? European Respiratory Journal [Internet]. 2020 Jul 6 [cited 2021 Feb 1];56(3). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01618-2020.
Tsao HS, Chason HM, Fearon DM. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in a pediatric patient positive for SARS-CoV-2. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2020 Aug 1 [cited 2021 Feb 1];146(2). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-1419.
Rubens JH, Akindele NP, Tschudy MM, Sick-Samuels AC. Acute covid-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. BMJ [Internet]. 2021 Mar 1 [cited 2021 Sep 30];372. Available from: https://www.bmj.com/content/372/bmj.n385.
Rand ML, Wright JF. Virus-associated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Transfusion Science. 1998 Sep 1;19(3):253–9. .
Kitamura K, Ohta H, Ihara T, Kamiya H, Ochiai H, Yamanishi K, et al. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after human herpesvirus 6 infection. The Lancet [Internet]. 1994 Sep 17 [cited 2021 Feb 1];344(8925):830. Available from: http://www.thelancet.com/article/S0140673694923906/fulltext.
Hamada M, Yasumoto S, Furue M. A Case of Varicella-Associated Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Adulthood. The Journal of Dermatology [Internet]. 2004 Jun 1 [cited 2021 Feb 1];31(6):477–9. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2004.tb00536.x.
DiMaggio D, Anderson A, Bussel JB. Cytomegalovirus can make immune thrombocytopenic purpura refractory. British Journal of Haematology [Internet]. 2009 Jul 1 [cited 2021 Feb 1];146(1):104–12. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07714.x.
Espinoza C, Kuhn C. Viral Infection of Megakaryocytes in Varicella with Purpura. American Journal of Clinical Pathology [Internet]. 1974 Feb 1 [cited 2021 Feb 1];61(2):203–8. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/ajcp/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcp/61.2.203.
Jawed M, Khalid A, Rubin M, Shafiq R, Cemalovic N. Acute Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) Following COVID-19 Vaccination in a Patient With Previously Stable ITP. Open Forum Infectious Diseases [Internet]. 2021 Jul 1 [cited 2021 Sep 29];8(7). Available from: https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/8/7/ofab343/6308965.
Zhao ZS, Granucci F, Yeh L, Schaffer PA, Cantor H. Molecular mimicry by herpes simplex virus-type 1: Autoimmune disease after viral infection. Science [Internet]. 1998 Feb 27 [cited 2021 May 11];279(5355):1344–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9478893/.
Cusick MF, Libbey JE, Fujinami RS. Molecular mimicry as a mechanism of autoimmune disease. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology [Internet]. 2012 Feb [cited 2021 May 11];42(1):102–11. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC3266166/.
Cornaby C, Gibbons L, Mayhew V, Sloan CS, Welling A, Poole BD. B cell epitope spreading: Mechanisms and contribution to autoimmune diseases. Immunology Letters [Internet]. 2015 Jan 1 [cited 2021 May 11];163(1):56–68. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25445494/.
Didona D, di Zenzo G. Humoral epitope spreading in autoimmune bullous diseases. Frontiers in Immunology [Internet]. 2018 Apr 17 [cited 2021 Feb 4];9(APR):1. Available from: www.frontiersin.org.
Powell AM, Black MM. Epitope spreading: protection from pathogens, but propagation of autoimmunity? Clinical and Experimental Dermatology [Internet]. 2001 Jul 1 [cited 2021 Feb 1];26(5):427–33. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1046/j.1365-2230.2001.00852.x.
Vanderlugt CL, Miller SD. Epitope spreading in immune-mediated diseases: Implications for immunotherapy. Nature Reviews Immunology [Internet]. 2002 [cited 2021 Feb 4];2(2):85–95. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nri724.
Benoist C, Mathis D. Autoimmunity provoked by infection: How good is the case for T cell epitope mimicry? Vol. 2, Nature Immunology. 2001. p. 797–801. .
Ponomarenko J, Bui HH, Li W, Fusseder N, Bourne PE, Sette A, et al. ElliPro: A new structure-based tool for the prediction of antibody epitopes. BMC Bioinformatics [Internet]. 2008 Dec 2 [cited 2021 May 24];9:514. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC2607291/.
Nielsen M, Lundegaard C, Lund O. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method. BMC Bioinformatics [Internet]. 2007 Apr 4 [cited 2021 May 24];8:238. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC1939856/.
Laskowski RA, Swindells MB. LigPlot+: Multiple ligand-protein interaction diagrams for drug discovery. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling [Internet]. 2011 Oct 24 [cited 2021 May 24];51(10):2778–86. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21919503/.
Lee H, Heo L, Lee MS, Seok C. GalaxyPepDock: A protein-peptide docking tool based on interaction similarity and energy optimization. Nucleic Acids Research [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2021 May 24];43(W1):W431–5. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25969449/.
Kerlan-Candon S, Combe B, Vincent R, Clot J, Pinet V, Eliaou JF. HLA-DRB1 gene transcripts in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and Experimental Immunology [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2021 Mar 15];124(1):142–9. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC1906025/.
Arango MT, Perricone C, Kivity S, Cipriano E, Ceccarelli F, Valesini G, et al. HLA-DRB1 the notorious gene in the mosaic of autoimmunity. Immunologic Research [Internet]. 2017 Feb 1 [cited 2021 Mar 22];65(1):82–98. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12026-016-8817-7.
Simmonds M, Gough S. The HLA Region and Autoimmune Disease: Associations and Mechanisms of Action. Current Genomics [Internet]. 2009 Feb 14 [cited 2021 Mar 22];8(7):453–65. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC2647156/.
Shimane K, Kochi Y, Suzuki A, Okada Y, Ishii T, Horita T, et al. An association analysis of HLA-DRB1 with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in a Japanese population: Effects of *09:01 allele on disease phenotypes. Rheumatology (United Kingdom) [Internet]. 2013 Jul [cited 2021 Mar 15];52(7):1172–82. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23407388/.
Sinha S, Prasad KN, Jain D, Nyati KK, Pradhan S, Agrawal S. Immunoglobulin IgG Fc-receptor polymorphisms and HLA class II molecules in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica [Internet]. 2010 Jan 25 [cited 2021 Mar 15];122(1):21–6. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2009.01229.x.
Fekih-Mrissa N, Mrad M, Riahi A, Sayeh A, Zaouali J, Gritli N, et al. Association of HLA-DR/DQ polymorphisms with Guillain-Barré syndrome in Tunisian patients. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2021 Mar 15];121:19–22. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24793468/.
Hasan ZN, Zalzala HH, Mohammedsalih HR, Mahdi BM, Abid LA, Shakir ZN, et al. Association between human leukocyte antigen-DR and demylinating guillain-barré syndrome. Neurosciences [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2021 Mar 15];19(4):301–5. Available from: www.neurosciencesjournal.org.
Nielsen M, Lund O, Buus S, Lundegaard C. MHC Class II epitope predictive algorithms. Immunology [Internet]. 2010 Jul [cited 2021 Apr 11];130(3):319–28. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC2913211/.
Nielsen M, Lundegaard C, Lund O. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method. BMC Bioinformatics [Internet]. 2007 Apr 4 [cited 2021 Apr 12];8:238. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC1939856/.
Danke NA, Koelle DM, Yee C, Beheray S, Kwok WW. Autoreactive T Cells in Healthy Individuals. The Journal of Immunology [Internet]. 2004 May 15 [cited 2021 May 14];172(10):5967–72. Available from: http://www.jimmunol.org/content/172/10/5967http://www.jimmunol.org/content/172/10/5967.full#ref-list-1.
Yan J, Mamula MJ. Autoreactive T Cells Revealed in the Normal Repertoire: Escape from Negative Selection and Peripheral Tolerance. The Journal of Immunology [Internet]. 2002 Apr 1 [cited 2021 May 11];168(7):3188–94. Available from: http://www.jimmunol.org/content/168/7/3188http://www.jimmunol.org/content/168/7/3188.full#ref-list-1.
McMahon EJ, Bailey SL, Castenada CV, Waldner H, Miller SD. Epitope spreading initiates in the CNS in two mouse models of multiple sclerosis. Nature Medicine [Internet]. 2005 Mar 27 [cited 2021 May 11];11(3):335–9. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nm1202.
Vanderlugt CL, Miller SD. Epitope spreading in immune-mediated diseases: Implications for immunotherapy. Nature Reviews Immunology [Internet]. 2002 [cited 2021 May 11];2(2):85–95. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nri724.
Angileri F, Legare S, Marino Gammazza A, Conway de Macario E, JL Macario A, Cappello F. Molecular mimicry may explain multi-organ damage in COVID-19. Autoimmunity Reviews [Internet]. 2020 Aug 1 [cited 2021 Apr 12];19(8):102591. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC7289093/.
Olson JK, Croxford JL, Calenoff MiriamA, Dal Canto MC, Miller SD. A virus-induced molecular mimicry model of multiple sclerosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation [Internet]. 2001 Jul 15 [cited 2021 Feb 4];108(2):311–8. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC203030/?report=abstract.
Fujinami RS, von Herrath MG, Christen U, Whitton JL. Molecular mimicry, bystander activation, or viral persistence: Infections and autoimmune disease. Clinical Microbiology Reviews [Internet]. 2006 Jan 1 [cited 2021 Feb 4];19(1):80–94. Available from: http://cmr.asm.org/.
Smatti MK, Cyprian FS, Nasrallah GK, al Thani AA, Almishal RO, Yassine HM. Viruses and Autoimmunity: A Review on the Potential Interaction and Molecular Mechanisms. Viruses [Internet]. 2019 Aug 19 [cited 2021 Jan 27];11(8):762. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/8/762.
Farris AD, Keech CL, Gordon TP, McCluskey J. Epitope mimics and determinant spreading: Pathways to autoimmunity. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences [Internet]. 2000 [cited 2021 May 14];57(4):569–78. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11130457/.
James JA, Harley JB. B-cell epitope spreading in autoimmunity. Immunological Reviews [Internet]. 1998 Aug 1 [cited 2021 May 11];164(1):185–200. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1600-065X.1998.tb01220.x.
Romagnani S. Immunological tolerance and autoimmunity. Internal and Emergency Medicine [Internet]. 2006 Sep [cited 2021 May 9];1(3):187–96. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17120464/.
Wucherpfennig KW, Sethi D. T cell receptor recognition of self and foreign antigens in the induction of autoimmunity. Seminars in Immunology [Internet]. 2011 Apr [cited 2021 May 8];23(2):84–91. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC3073734/.
Dardalhon V, Korn T, Kuchroo VK, Anderson AC. Role of Th1 and Th17 cells in organ-specific autoimmunity. Journal of Autoimmunity [Internet]. 2008 Nov [cited 2021 May 19];31(3):252–6. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC3178062/.
Gaylo A, Schrock DC, Fernandes NRJ, Fowell DJ. T cell interstitial migration: Motility cues from the inflamed tissue for micro- and macro-positioning. Frontiers in Immunology [Internet]. 2016 Oct 14 [cited 2021 May 19];7(OCT). Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC5063845/.
Guerriero JL. Macrophages: Their Untold Story in T Cell Activation and Function. International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology [Internet]. 2019 Jan 1 [cited 2021 May 19];342:73–93. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30635094/.
Martin B, Auffray C, Delpoux A, Pommier A, Durand A, Charvet C, et al. Highly self-reactive naive CD4 T cells are prone to differentiate into regulatory T cells. Nature Communications [Internet]. 2013 Jul 31 [cited 2021 May 11];4(1):1–12. Available from: www.nature.com/naturecommunications.
Sewell AK. Why must T cells be cross-reactive? Nature Reviews Immunology [Internet]. 2012 Sep 24 [cited 2020 Nov 29];12(9):669–77. Available from: www.nature.com/reviews/immunol.
Gunzer M, Weishaupt C, Hillmer A, Basoglu Y, Friedl P, Dittmar KE, et al. A spectrum of biophysical interaction modes between T cells and different antigen-presenting cells during priming in 3-D collagen and in vivo. Blood [Internet]. 2004 Nov 1 [cited 2021 May 19];104(9):2801–9. Available from: http://ashpublications.org/blood/article-pdf/104/9/2801/1702797/zh802104002801.pdf.
Meidaninikjeh S, Sabouni N, Marzouni HZ, Bengar S, Khalili A, Jafari R. Monocytes and macrophages in COVID-19: Friends and foes. Life Sciences [Internet]. 2021 Mar 15 [cited 2021 May 20];269:119010. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC7834345/.
Alrubayyi A. NK cells in COVID-19: protectors or opponents? Nature Reviews Immunology [Internet]. 2020 Sep 1 [cited 2021 May 20];20(9):520. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-020-0408-0.
Herrath MG, Fujinami RS, Whitton JL. Microorganisms and autoimmunity: Making the barren field fertile? Nature Reviews Microbiology [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2021 May 24];1(2):151–7. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro754.
Cao X. COVID-19: immunopathology and its implications for therapy. Vol. 20, Nature Reviews Immunology. Nature Research; 2020. p. 269–70. .
Chiappelli F. CoViD-19 Immunopathology & Immunotherapy. Bioinformation [Internet]. 2020 Mar 31 [cited 2020 Nov 6];16(3):219–22. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC7147500/?report=abstract
Favalli EG, Ingegnoli F, de Lucia O, Cincinelli G, Cimaz R, Caporali R. COVID-19 infection and rheumatoid arthritis: Faraway, so close! Autoimmunity Reviews [Internet]. 2020 May 1 [cited 2021 Jan 31];19(5):102523. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC7102591/?report=abstract.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 The copyright to the submitted manuscript is held by the Author, who grants the Journal of Medical Science (JMS) a nonexclusive licence to use, reproduce, and distribute the work, including for commercial purposes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.