AbstractBackground. Patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency have quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of pituitary hormone production that may trigger psychological consequences. Several studies have evidenced symptoms of social disturbances in these patients.
Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate personality traits and psychological sex-role schema influencing social adaptation in patients with childhood-onset combined pituitary hormone deficiency.
Material and Methods. Study involved a unique group of 28 adult patients with childhood-onset combined pituitary hormone deficiencies that were never treated with growth hormone. To psychological assessment the short Polish version of Bem’s Sex Role Inventory and the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were used in the study.
Results. The analysis of scores on the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory showed significantly elevated results in the scales for lying, hysteria, psychopathic deviation, hypochondria, and schizophrenia as well as decreased scores in hypomania indicating a number of symptoms of maladjustment in many different areas of life. The short Polish version of Bem’s Sex Role Inventory scores indicated that most of combined pituitary hormone deficiency patients were sex-undifferentiated and no one was androgynous.
Conclusions. The sex-role schema and certain personality traits seem to predispose childhood-onset combined pituitary hormone deficiency patients not treated with growth hormone to problems with social adaptation and greater susceptibility to situational stressors. Neurotic reactions, tendency for social alienation, and lack of flexibility have all been observed in these patients. Therefore, combined pituitary hormone deficiency patients may more often need special support when it comes to coping with disease.
Download data is not yet available.
- Warmuz-Stangierska I, Gołąb M, Stangierski A, Kałużna M, Rak E, Nowocień T, et al. Cognitive function in patients with childhoodonset combined pituitary hormone deficiency not treated with growth hormone. Journal of Medical Science. 2016;85(3):178–84.
- Gupta V. Adult growth hormone deficiency. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2011;15(Suppl. 3):197–202.
- Reuss VI. Behavioral disturbances associated with endocrine disorders. Ann Rev Med. 1987;37:205–214.
- Webb EA, O'Reilly MA, Clayden JD, Seunarine KK, Chong WK, Dale N et al. Effect of growth hormone deficiency on brain structure, motor function and cognition. Brain. 2012;135:216–27.
- Deijen JB, de Boer H, Blok GJ, van der Veen EA. Cognitive impairments and mood disturbances in growth hormone deficient men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1996;21:313–22.
- Voss L, Bailey B, Mulligan J, Wilkin T, Betts P. Short stature and school performance – the Wessex Groth Study. Acta Paediatr Scanid Suppl. 1991;377:29–31.
- Stabler B, Clopper RR, Siegel PT, Stoppani C, Compton PG, Underwood LE. Academic achievement and social adjustment in short children. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1994;15:1–6.
- Gordon M, Crouthamel C, Post E, Richman A. Psychosocial aspects of constitutional short stature: social competence, behavior problems, self-esteem and family functioning. J Pediatr. 1982;101:477–480.
- Shadel WG. Introduction to the special series: What can personality science offer cognitive-behavioral therapy and research? Behav Ther. 2004;35:101–111.
- Beverly IF. Changes in thinking about early sex role development. Dev Rev. 1985;5:83–98.
- Bem SL. The measurement of psychological androgyny. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1974;42:155–62.
- Bem SL. Gender Schema Theory; a Cognitive Account of Sex Typing. Psychol Rev. 1981;88:354–364.
- Paluchowski J. (ed.) Use and interpretation of MMPI questionnaire, vol. I, II, III. 1984 & 1985, PTP Wydział Psychologii UW, Warszawa.
- Gomuła J, Pancerz K, Szkoła J. Analysis of MMPI profiles of patients with mental disorders – the first unveil of a new computer tool. In: Grzech A, Świątek P, Brzostowski K. (eds.). Applications of Systems Science. Academic Publishing House, Warszawa: EXIT, 2010. p. 297–306.
- Kuczyńska A. Psychological Gender: Theoretical foundations, empirical data and measurement tool. Polskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne, Warszawa, 1992.
- Kuczyńska A. Inventory for psychological gender assessment. 1999, Polskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne, Warszawa.
- Prodam F, Caputo M, Belcastro S, Garbaccio V, Zavattaro M, Sama MT et al. Quality of life, mood disturbances and psychological parameters in adult patients with GH deficiency. Panminerva Med. 2012;54:323–31.
- Steinhausen HC, Stahnke N. Negative impact of growth-hormone deficiency on psychological functioning in dwarfed children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr. 1997;126:263–270.
- Rekers-Mombarg LT, Busschbach JJ, Massa GG, Dicke J, Wit JM. Quality of life of young adults with idiopathic short stature: effect of growth hormone treatment. Dutch Growth Hormone Working Group. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87:865–870.
- Thomas JDJ, Monsen JP. Adult GH deficiency throughout lifetime. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:97–106.
- Rosén T, Wirén L, Wilhelmsen L, Wiklund I, Bengtsson BA. Decreased psychological well-being in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol. 1994;40:111–116.
- Tager BN, Kost Shelton E. Personality Changes in Endocrine Disorders With a Note on ‘Symptomatic Hypoglycemia 1943. JCEM 3. Published online 01.06.2013.
- Cadman D, Boyle M, Szatmari P, Offord DR. Chronic illness, disability, and mental and social well-being: findings of the Ontario Child Health Study. Pediatrics. 1987;79:805–13.
- Jokela M, Hakulinen C, Singh-Manoux A, Kivimäki M. Personality change associated with chronic diseases: pooled analysis of four prospective cohort studies. Psychol Med. 2014;44:2629–2640.
- Hathaway SR, McKinley JC. Manual for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality. Inventory. 1943, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
- Bem SL. Sex typing and androgyny: Further explorations of the expressive domain. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1976;34:1016.
- Ruchala M, Stangierska I, Gurgul E, Stangierski A, Fajfer J, Sowinski J. The effect of octreotide treatment on somatic and psychological symptoms of acromegaly. Neuroendocrinology Lett. 2010;31:265–269.
- Stheneur C, Sznajder M, Taylor M, Chevallier B. Experience of Adolescence in Patients Treated With GH during Childhood. Ped Endocrinol Rev. 2011;33:2–3.
- Eiser C. Psychological Effects of Chronic Disease. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1999;31:85–98.
- Sartorio A, Molinari E, Riva G, Conti A, Morabito F, Faglia G. Growth hormone treatment in adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency: effects on psychological capabilities. Horm Res. 1995;44:6–11.