A study of ofloxacin and levofloxacin photostability in aqueous solutions

  • Anita Frąckowiak Department of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Bartosz Kamiński Department of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Bartosz Urbaniak Department of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Paweł Dereziński Department of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Agnieszka Klupczyńska Department of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Monika Darul-Duszkiewicz Department of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
  • Zenon J. Kokot Department of Inorganic & Analytical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland
Keywords: fluoroquinolones, photodegradation, chiral separation

Abstract

Introduction. The photostability is one of the most important properties of drugs. A comprehensive study of ofloxacin (OFX) and levofloxacin (LVX) photostability in aqueous solutions was performed. Ofloxacin is a chemotherapeutic agent belonging to the second generation fluoroquinolones and is a racemate of (R)-(+)-ofloxacin and (S)-(-)-ofloxacin (LVX).Material and Methods. Samples of OFX and LVX were subjected to stress conditions of UV irradiation using a mercury-vapor lamp. The study involved development of enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) methods for separation of OFX enantiomers and their degradation products. These methods were used to monitor the degradation process of OFX and LVX under irradiation and to determine the kinetics of degradation of these antibacterial agents. Moreover, the identification of photoproducts was also attempted. The structure of the main photoproducts was examined by mass spectrometry (MS).Results and Conclusions. Using HPLC method it was possible to observe two products of OFX degradation and only one for LVX, while using HPCE method eight products of OFX degradation and six of LVX were observed. Some of the photoproducts retain character of optically active compounds. The trend of the photodegradation of both tested compounds was described by autocatalytic reaction proceeding according to the Prout-Tompkins model. Some of the products of the decomposition catalyze this reaction. The rate of degradation was similar for both enantiomers but t0.5 was slightly longer for LVX than OFX. Based on MS experiments the photodegradation products of the studied fluoroquinolones and possible pathways of UV induced decay were identified.